The bitter struggle that rolled back and forth across the North African desert was the first major Allied victory of the Second World War. ODAL!Music: ODAL!Video: channel/rfyxEnAH7Uy. North Africa campaigns, (–43), in World War II, series of battles for but significant events that bound the Axis Powers and culminated in a world war.
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His decision was the consequence not merely of his weakness in forces and in supplies but also of the new situation produced by the Anglo-U.
He had been tasked by General George Marshall with providing detailed reports on the military situation in Africa. Retrieved 17 December On the tactical and operational levels, several factors conspired against the Axis despite the battlefield brilliance of Rommel and the superb fighting of the Afrika Korps.
The chance of developing the breach into a breakthrough had faded, and the massive British armoured wedge was embedded in a strong ring of German antitank guns. Keep Exploring Britannica September 11 attacks. Auchinleck, for his afrlca, was not content with stopping Rommel: The British ground forces, however, were far better organized, trained and equipped and had superior leadership.
Brevity was then followed zfrica by a much larger-scale offensive, Operation Battleaxe. At the end of June, the Axis forces made a second attempt to break through the Allied defences at El Alamein at Alam Halfabut were unsuccessful.
Under continuing pressure from Churchill, Wavell launched africca major offensive on June The logistics of the North African desert campaigns in World War II virtually eliminated local supply and intermediate bases and depots, in effect replacing staged resupply by a simple single-shuttle base-to-troops operation.
In two months, a British force of about two divisions had advanced miles, destroyed 10 Italian divisions, and capturedprisoners, tanks and guns.
Rommel africx El Agheila on March We knew from experience that Italian Headquarters cannot keep things to themselves and that everything they wireless to Rome gets round to British ears. That threat forced the British forward units in Libya to resupply through Tobruk, more than miles away.
Thus, the North African campaign and the naval campaign for the Mediterranean were extensions of each other in a very real sense. Neil Methuen Ritchie on November The relatively unknown Lt.
Erwin Rommel assumed command of the German units that later became the famed Afrika Korps. The Axis forces finally had a unified command structure in Tunisia, but Rommel probably was not the best choice. Waiting for better weather in the spring, the Allies continued to build up their forces. Please try again later. This created a supply problem for his forward units. Thus, the opportunity for a speedy resolution in the North African theatre was lost. The Allies pushed forward and recaptured Kasserine Pass on February The Eighth Army once more started falling back to the Egyptian border.
Patton was commanding general of the western task force during the successful U. The 7th Armoured Division then drove westward to isolate Tobruk until the Australians could mount an assault on that coastal fortress.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ofrces paper the two sides had the appearance of being evenly matched: During the time when Malta was under heavy air attack, the ability to act on this information was limited, but as Allied air and naval strength improved, the information became instrumental to Allied success.
Nevertheless, the wedge that had been driven into the German defenses in the north looked so menacing that local defending commanders threw in their tanks piecemeal in efforts to stanch the British advance.
Britain and France also agreed to divide the responsibility for maintaining naval control of the Mediterranean, with the main British base located at Alexandria, Egypt. On September 13,Graziani reluctantly moved into Egypt, almost a month after he had been ordered to do so by Mussolini. 9140-43 following day, he ordered his striking force to take up a defensive position. For three weeks, Auchinleck skillfully battled Rommel to a standstill. From this report, Churchill wrongly axiss that the Germans were ready to collapse with one strong push, and he started pressuring Wavell to mount an immediate counteroffensive.
Principal material losses   8, aircraft destroyed; 6, guns, 2, tanks and 70, trucks destroyed or captured. After the invasion of Ethiopia by Italian troops in Octoberthe British and French proposed a secret agreement that would have ceded the bulk of Ethiopian territory to Italy in exchange for a truce.
By November, he had tanks, aircraft and nine divisions three Germanfour of which were tied down in the siege of Tobruk. He was assassinated on 24 December Prelude Africa Asia Europe. Montgomery deduced that his initial thrust had failed, that the breach was blocked, and that he must devise a fresh plan, while giving his main striking forces a rest. On February 24 the Axis also realigned its command structure.