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The Persian Constitutional Revolution Persian: The Revolution opened the way for cataclysmic change in Persia, heralding the modern era.
It saw a period of unprecedented debate in a burgeoning press. Many different groups fought to shape the course of the Revolution, and all sections of society were ultimately to be in some way changed by it. The old order, which king Nassereddin Shah Qajar had struggled ghnoon so long to sustain, finally died, to be replaced by new institutions, new forms of expression, and a new social and political order.
The monarch Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar signed the constitution inbut he died shortly after and was replaced by Mohammad Ali Shah. The latter abolished the constitution and bombarded the parliament with Russian and British support in This led to another pro-constitutional movement. The constitutionalist forces marched to Tehran, forced Muhammad Ali Shah’s abdication in favor of his young son Ahmad Shah Qajar and then re-established the constitution in The ” Ganoon Coup” Persian: On December 12,Iran’s parliament amended Iran’s constitution of — to replace the Qajar dynasty — with the Pahlavi dynasty as the legitimate sovereigns of Iran.
The movement did not end with the Revolution being put down in by the Russians, but was followed by the Jungle Movement of Gilan With the first provision the fundamental law signed by Muzzafir al-Din just days before his death, Iran saw legislative reform vital to their goal of independence from British and Russian imperialism.
The three main groups of the coalition seeking a constitution were the bazaar merchants, ulama, and a small faction of radical reformers. These groups shared the goal of ending royal corruption and stopping the dominance of foreign powers. Revolutionaries argued that role of the shah was once again being used to keep the Shah, Qajar, and the other aristocrats wealthy at the expense of surrendering the country’s resources and economy.
Muzzafir al-Din accumulated a fortune in foreign debt while selling off assets to repay the interest, instead of investing in Iran. This rift founded Iran’s constitutional revolt. The fundamental law gave the elected legislature a final approval over all loans, concession, and budget. Further power was diverted from the shah with the supplementary fundamental law passed a few days later giving power over appointing ghanooon, and later a committee of mujtahids was introduced to confirm new laws abide by the shari’ah.
Despite the ulama’s best efforts towards independence from external dominance, in Britain and Russia capitalized on Iran’s weak government and signed the entente which divided Iran among the two leaving a neutral zone in the center of the country. The end wsasi this constitutional period came when members of the Majlis in the remaining neutral zone of Tehran dissolved asasl the issue of equal rights for non-Muslims, Russia then invaded Tehran and captured the city.
While Iran did gain a constitution, the goal of Iranian independence was not achieved by the revolts. Weakness and extravagance continued during the brief reign of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar — He often relied on his chancellor to manage his decentralized state. Ghahoon dire financial situation caused him to sign many concessions to foreign powers, on an expanding list of trade items ranging from weapons to tobacco. The established noble classes, religious authorities, and educated elite began to demand a curb on royal authority and the establishment of the rule of law as their concern over foreign, and especially Russian, influence grew.
He had also taken out several major loans from Russia and Britain to pay for his extravagant lifestyle and the costs of the central government.
In the Shah financed a royal tour of Europe by borrowing 22 million rubles from Russia. Iranian customs receipts served as collateral. In protests broke out over the collection of Persia tariffs asais pay back the Russian loan for Mozaffar ad-Din Shah’s royal tour.
They were bastinadoed a humiliating and very painful punishment where the soles of one’s feet are caned in public. An uprising of the merchant class in Tehran ensued, with merchants closing the bazaar. The clergy following suit as a result of the alliance formed in the Tobacco Rebellion. The two protesting groups sought sanctuary in a mosque in Tehran, but the government violated this sanctuary and entered the mosque and dispersed the group. This guanoon of the sanctity of the mosque created an even larger movement which sought refuge in a shrine outside Tehran.
On January 12, the Shah capitulated to the demonstrators agreeing to dismiss his prime minister and to surrender power to a new “house of justice,” the forerunner to the parliament. The Basti protesters who take sanctuary in mosques returned from the mosque in triumph, asasii royal carriages and being hailed by a jubilant crowd.
In a scuffle in early the Government killed a seyyed descendant of the prophet Muhhamed. A more deadly skirmish followed a short time later when Cossacks killed 22 protesters and zsasi Many merchants went to the British embassy which agreed to offer protection to Basti in the grounds asaso their legation. In the summer of approximately 12, men camped out in the gardens of the British Embassy.
In AugustMozaffar ad-Din Shah agreed to allow a parliament, and in the fall, the first elections were held. In all, members were elected, with an overwhelming majority coming from Tehran and the merchant class. October marked the first meeting of the majles, who immediately gave themselves the right to make a constitution, thereby becoming a Constitutional Assembly. The Shah was getting old and sick, and attending the inauguration of the parliament was one of his last acts as king.
Therefore, they had to work fast, and by December 31, the Shah signed the constitution, modeled primarily from the Belgian Constitution. The Shah ghanon from there on “under the rule of law, and the crown became a divine gift given to the Shah by the people. Within the decade following the establishment of the new Majles a number of critical events took gahnoon. Many of these events can be viewed as a continuation of the struggle between the constitutionalists ghanono the Shahs of Persia, many of whom ghaboon backed by foreign powers against the Majles.
In Augustan Anglo-Russian agreement divided Iran into a Russian zone in the North and a British zone in the South, with a neutral band in-between. The British switched their support to the Shah, abandoning the Constitutionalists.
You, the respected advocate of liberty sun- The brave chief of righteousness- You, who gave your life for Iran’s bliss- Long live your name, may your soul rests in eternal peace. Howard Baskerville was and still remains a beloved hero in Iran. There is a photo of Mr. Mohammad Saasi Mahdavi with the inscribed tabular tombstone for Mr.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This asazi is about the Iranian revolution of — For the revolution that took insee Iranian Revolution. For the series of reforms launched insee White Revolution. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. The royal proclamation of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah that agree the Constitutional monarchy on August 5, Qajar dynasty Nazmiyeh  Cossack Brigade .
Struggle and Civil War: Persian Constitution of Iran Between Two Revolutions. Armenians and the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of — The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions Routledge, 29 apr. Historical and Comparative Perspectives, in: Rainer Grote and Tilmann J.
The article includes scientific English translation of the following documents: Fisher Unwin, London,pp. According to Shuster p. The Russian consular authorities promptly refused to allow these men to be tried by the Persian Government, and took them out of asais country under Russian protection, claiming that they would be suitably punished.
Archived from the original on 27 April Changes in political power in Iran. Personalities involved in the Persian Constitutional Revolution. Retrieved from ” https: CS1 Persian-language sources fa Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references Articles containing Persian-language text Commons category link is on Wikidata.