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The overall prevalence of psychosocial stress has been set at Likewise, being under serious threat for long periods of time has been related to depressive disorders, and events of loss to depressive or anxiety disorders1. Women are more exposed to psychological pediattria than men. Organisational factors have a greater influence in the manifestation of harassment in men, while personal rivalry appears in almost half of the women 3.
Several similarities in their plots stand out. Thus, the main character is always a middle-aged man, belonging to the moneyed class.
He has a socially pediagria family, and a monotonous job that supplies him with money but that neither stimulates nor pleases him, which affects his life negatively. This will lead him to try to remedy his existential crisis, as we see in the subtle development of all three films.
These main characters choose different solutions. Elia Kazan based on his homonymous novel. A new day begins for the Anderson family: Eddie leaves for work, leaving his wife and his daughter at home, but on the motorway he suddenly tries to kill himself.
After a stay in hospital, back home he withdraws into a silence which he only breaks to attempt to build up for his wife what his last year of life has amounted to: From then on, Eddie tries to recover control over his life, unsuccessfully returning to the agency, recovering his relationship with Gwen and taking care of his dying father against the opposition of his own family.
He enjoys all the wealth and comforts that would make anyone happy: He has finished an advertising campaign for a tobacco company, he has an impressive house in a residential area pedatria the outskirts of Los Angeles, perfectly fitted out and with servants, several cars -among them a convertible sports car- a pretty and attractive wife, Florence Deborah Kerrand an exemplary daughter who has finished high school and is about to begin at university Figure 1.
He even has an affair with a secretary… Everything seems perfect, but in his mind set he feels there is something that does not fit in: He survives, slightly pedkatria and apparently suffering from speech loss.
Despite his success and the income it affords himhis job as an advertising agent does not satisfy him. At university he had written poetry and he had wanted to devote his life to literature. In his personal life, and within the context of a mid-life crisis, he lives with a wife to whom he has been married for many years, whom he no longer loves.
Meanwhile, he feels love and passion towards his latest lover, the young and independent Gwen Faye Dunawaya woman who inspires him and makes him react from his stupor through her, sometimes painful, sincerity Figure 3. As a result of his suicide attempt and because of the rejection he shows towards her, his wife suspects the affair, which she later confirms when she finds some pictures of her husband with his lover, both naked.
After the accident, Eddie does not speak. He is visited by his relatives and bosses, who want him to go back to work, but he only breaks his silence to say that he in no longer going to work, that he is not going to carry on with his previous life.
This unleashes a family and marriage crisis: He also becomes embroiled in a job crisis: When he visits him two lifestyles clash in his mind: His father was a rug trader who has fallen on hard times, authoritarian and sullen with his family, who admires his son not because of his job but because of his income.
In addition, he recalls the conflict they had when he wished his son to follow in his steps in the rug business. His father does not want to spend his last days at the clinic and Eddie helps him to leave it and get home. This unleashes a new family crisis among Eddie, his wife, and his sister-in-law. The women want to put his father in a home, which they end up managing.
The differing lifestyles are reflected in it. According to the ICD classification of mental and behavioural disorders, these disorders have a series of diagnostic criteria 2: The onset of emotional or behavioural symptoms in response to an identifiable stressful element. In the film, the conflict was with his job as an advertising agent and his adulterous relationship with Gwen.
These symptoms or behaviours are clinically expressed in the following way: A more intense reaction than might be expected in response to the stressful element. A significant deterioration in social relations or job performance. The stress-related alteration does not comply with the criteria for any other specific disorder and does not constitute a mere aggravation of a pre-existing disorder. Eddie apparently did not suffer from anything before the accident.
The symptoms are not due to grief. Once the stressful element or its consequences has disappeared, the symptoms do not persist for longer than 6 months. If the score is above points it is advisable to take action. In the first stage, he suffers from a depressive disorder.
At first there is a predominance of lackluster: Thus, he has grey hair, he is, apathic, silent, unkept, suffers insomnia, argues with his wife, etc. He later develops a neurotic reaction: His former life revolved around his work; constant lengthy meetings were invoked to explain away his affair with Gwen, causing him deep dissatisfaction.
This is why his performance drops, and he develops a lack of interest, a lack of initiative, a loss of promotion-related enthusiasm and a lack of motivation. Among the symptoms he develops are irritability, aggression he has constant arguments with Florence and Gwen Figure7mood swings, inhibition of sexual desire, gastrointestinal alterations, insomnia many of the rows and recurring thoughts take place at nightheadaches, consumption and abuse of alcohol and other substances, and exhaustion.
In the case of our protagonist, competitiveness stress is present, which is typical of businessmen and executives because he is an executive at the advertising companytogether with creativity stress, typical of writers, artists and researchers because he is an advertising agent and has been taking part in the Zephir tobacco project and relational stress, typical of teachers, public servants and shop assistants because he has been in direct contact with clients and executives belonging to his company.
The main character is of Greek origin; Elia Kazan was born in the bosom of a family belonging to the Greek minority of Istanbul. The main character is professionally successful, Elia Kazan won his first Oscar with Gentleman’s Agreement in ; was nominated in for A Streetcar Named Desireand won his second for On the Waterfront inbut was never pleased with his life.
He suffered the scorn of the cinematographic community because of his supposed relationship with actors and theatre-people related to the communist party, leading him to have to testify twice before the Un-American Activities Committee. He later tried to redeem himself by explaining the behaviour of the communist party by disguising it as criminal Mafia in On the Waterfront Like Eddie Anderson, he left behind a successful life.
His next film, The visitorswas the first one he made outside the Hollywood industry but it bombed and is a minor film in his filmography. The film has a clearly theatrical stage design. There are few settings: They can afford a few indulgences and they have bought a chalet in the mountains near Madrid where they spend the weekends in the company of family and friends, doing sports activities and having barbecues.
However, beyond this apparent happiness lies a feeling of deep frustration brought about by the lifestyle they have chosen.
It is also the third collaboration between Garci and Sinde and the first one between the director and the Landa-Casanova tandem This film analyses the development of the middle class during the Spanish transition to Democracy and the development of fierce communism such as we know it nowadays. In the character of Eddie Anderson from The Arrangementthe social anxiety disorder takes place after years of living amidst the greatest of comforts and the best of worldly goods, and this capital-property-satisfaction model settled in the Spain of the late 70s and has lasted up to the present the future is now very uncertain.
He cannot imagine that thousands of interferences and a number of other problems with his wife, his boss, his mother-in-law, his future brother-in-law will cause his peace and quietness to gradually vanish, evolving towards a somewhat violent environment. When the weekend is over and the family begins the journey back to Madrid he returns and sets fire to the chalet Figure 9.
Only then does he happily return to the car where his wife and children are waiting for him, all of them ready to begin a new life. In this film fire represents a ritual element, by which -and through the destruction of the Rebolledo house- he struggles to free himself from a routine that torments him and to avoid one day dying in bitterness and unhappiness, like one of his friends and work colleagues of whom he has spoken to his wife that same afternoon while they were walking in the pine forest, after realising that all they had been fighting for since they were young was nothing but a mirage.
This rite involves the destruction of a lifestyle he no longer desires; an act of rebellion against a father who did not allow him to develop his artistic interests as a writer.
It is a way of breaking with the past. The Age of ignorance. In the real world, he is a nobody, a pen-pusher, an insignificant meconiwl, and a failed parent who secretly smokes. But Jean-Marc manages to resist without succumbing to the temptation of his dream world and decides to give the real world another try.
Jean-Marc is a mediocre man in general and in every aspect of his life. In the building where he works there is a true persecution of smokers by the security staff. They are a labyrinth of corridors and offices managed by the security guard.
In them, civil servant Leblanc demands an endless stream of documents from the uncomplaining taxpayers who seek social benefits for personal problems. He has a good circle of colleagues, but his boss is constantly reprimanding him for his delays. He lives in a residential area on the outskirts of the city; to get to work ilo has to drive for 20 minutes, then take a minute train journey and finally get on the underground for another 20 minutes.
And this every day. On top of everything, the houses of his housing estate are small castles that serve to isolate neighbours from each other. In contrast, his wife is a successful real estate agent who spends the whole film talking on the phone with her clients or her boss who is occasionally her lover. The relationship with his wife is non-existent; she never listens to him or has sex with him because of her hectic professional activities.
His daughters ignore him because they are busy with game consoles or music sets, and they are only interested in consuming or satisfying their own needs Figure On top of all this, his mother is dying in a home. He imagines that he is a brave pediaatria, the lover of a media star or a successful writer surrounded by beautiful women.
In his fantasy world he is really himself, since he satisfies his sexual, affective and emotional pediattria through these female characters. There are three lovers: When he is overwhelmed by boredom he takes refuge in his oneiric world which he is reluctant to leave. It is a means of escape from the problems which he does not want to confront because of the inertia of his state of apathy. Faced with the impossibility of living in the present, in reality, he mecpnial the need for a childish escape to the world of fantasy.
Leblanc has nothing in his everyday life. He loathes his wife, he hates his job, he is ignored by his daughters…, and the possibility of fantasising about a fame he does not possess, sex he does not have, and love and understanding keep him active and alive.